Thursday, October 13, 2005

Butterflies too migrate—from Karnataka to Tamilnadu

By Jehova G, Anaikatti (Tamilnadu):

Hundreds of butterflies swarmed open spaces in Coimbatore as the winged creatures took to the sky for their annual migration from the higher reaches of Karnataka to neighbouring State of Tamil Nadu.

Butterfly migration is driven by seasonal change and in India they take flight in two different seasons, mainly April to June and October to November, coinciding with the rains. These days the Anaikatti hills, located, 25 kilometres away from Coimbatore, is abound with butterflies of vibrant colours fluttering about from one patch of green cover to the next as part of the seasonal phenomenon.

Researchers are upbeat over the increase in number of the migratory butterflies.

“In one location itself we have seen thousands of butterflies. They are flying since 9:00 in the morning to 4:00 in the evening. This year the number of migrating butterflies has increased and also the number of species. We have recorded about some hundreds butterflies in the Anaikatti hills itself and many of them are migrating now,” says P. Pramod, research scientist on butterflies and natural education officer of the Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History.

This year more than seven varieties of butterflies, numbering thousands, migrated that include species like Dark Blue Tiger, Blue Tiger, Common Crow, Double Brander, Emigran, Madlet and Common Albatross.

The hills on the migratory path of the butterflies have been witnessing the recurrent phenomenon for the last three years. The dense forest covers and green vegetation and the mineral rich soil of the hills provide the butterflies with the perfect conditions for reproduction and mud-puddling, the extraction of minerals by butterflies for nutrients from rocks, stones and soils.

“In this whole process of migration various pockets of forest are working as very significant conservation points. We have seen Nilgiri hills, all those areas are extraordinary production ground of this butterflies,” says Pramod.

Butterflies are the second largest pollinators in the world after honeybees.


Photographing Butterflies, Damselflies and Dragonflies By May Lattanzio

I found this article very useful so I am posting it here.

I just wrote this to help someone on one of my digital photo lists. I
hope it helps someone. -- May Lattanzio

Photographing Butterflies, Damselflies and Dragonflies

Most of my photography is macro and done with a Sony DSC-F717. I'm out with my camera in all sorts of weather now (mostly hot and humid), but recently in the rain. I've discovered the magic of a baggy and a rubber band to protect my camera. It is somewhat difficult, but not impossible to know if you're focused. A golf umbrella would be a good thing to bring along. Maybe someone who reads this will come up with an ingenious way to attach the umbrella to the photographer so you don't need three hands.

Because I live in Florida, where it's very buggy, that's where I first got my experience shooting bugs, especially butterflies, dragons and damselflies.

Here are a few things to remember, but the one thing is that insects are exothermic, meaning they are most active in the heat. My best dragons are shot between 11a.m. and 3p.m.. The sun is climbing, high, or slowly dropping, but the heat is still there. Of course, the light is very harsh at midday and the color will wash out at that time.

Dragonflies - They are territorial. Stand and watch them and you will find the pattern. Many of the smaller ones have a territory of only 30-40 feet. Don't move much, just watch. You will make mental notes of the heights that they fly (some stay close to the ground). They will find perches and return time and again once they get used to you.

Start with taking a long shot. Slowly approach a step at a time. I take a lot of photos like this using zoom. As you get closer, you can use your macro. You can get SO close. I have put their little faces within three inches of my lens, and as long as they become used to you, it won't matter. You've become safe.

Do dorsal shots first. That is, from the rear, from the top. Slowly move around to the side, and then to the side of the face and finally the face. I have noticed that some field guides note posed
individuals. That means the insect has been caught, cooled and placed immobile on an appropriate leaf or twig. I have never done this, and my rewards are sharp, clear digital images which are taken very, very close.

All perch differently. Large darners and cruisers like to hang in foliage near the water. Meadowhawks like to rest in grass blades. Hallowe'en Pennants are the only ones to perch with their four wings "askew" and face into the wind clinging to the very top of the tallest grasses (at least shoulder high on me) in a field.

Just before sunset is a spurt of action. Mosquitoes are gathering then. Take a breath, stop your heart, depress your shutter halfway to focus, take your picture.

Damselflies - although they are exothermic, like the shade - dense vines, lots of potted plants. Because they are so small they hunt where the air is still. They are cousins of dragonflies and are predators, too. I just took a photo of one eating a mosquito, larger than the head and thorax of the damsel. Look in the cooler areas of your garden and against the house. They seem to be very active before noon and after 2, especially early in the mornings. They are brightly colored (often
metallic or neon hued) and more skittish than dragonflies. You'll have to follow along, and have your camera set up for macro. Sometimes they are hard to detect; a blur out of the corner of your eye. They are not much heftier than an inch or so of flying thread. Just as their larger cousins do, they will kill and eat their own, occasionally. I have witnessed and photographed a Rambur's Forktail eating a newly caught Southern Sprite.

I just had the wonderful experience of finding a mating pair. I was walking around six in the morning and in the wet grass saw a male drop suddenly and come up clasping a female who was hiding. Assuming the wheel position, the mating lasted for over a half hour, and because they were occupied, I again took all the macro shots I needed.

They will watch you and try to keep a distance, but they are not fast fliers. Interestingly, I was wearing a hospital green shirt the other day, and had a Powdered Dancer decide it had to hunt all over me.

Watch for clusters of minute grapelike clusters. These are water mites.

Damselflies also don't mind flying in light rain or mist.

Butterflies - The large swallowtails are a terrible challenge. Because of their weight, they need to flutter to keep their proboscis in the area of the flower which contains the nectar. You can stop their wing action if you are patient. However, the pattern the flutter makes on your memory card or film can make a unique exposure. It shows motion - part of the shot should be clear. Play with the image in your photo software program.

Butterflies are slightly territorial, but each species prefers certain flowers. This is key because when they are nectaring, they are concentrating. Here in Florida and elsewhere in the USA is a wild plant called Spanish Needles. It blooms at roadsides and is perennial. It looks like a small, five-petalled daisy. It is an incredible resource for many insects, not just butterflies. If you can plant some from seed, so much the better. Our Gulf Fritillaries love that plant, as well as Buckeyes, Hairstreaks, Monarchs, Tiger Swallowtails, and all of the skippers. Just move and observe quietly, do not have lens caps dangling, and you will get your shots. There are many resources available on butterfly gardening. And remember, the weeds you pull are really wildflowers.

The butterflies in my yard aren't seen until about 10:30 a.m. I have watched the sulphurs come down the street (before the road was paved), in a fluttering parade and come to the garden.

Provide wet sand in drought conditions, set up a sprinkler, use fruit in a brightly colored dish. Many butterflies like rotting fruit, urine and dog feces. If you are walking creekside, be ready to see drinking butterflies. Similarly, if you have livestock, watch moist areas where durine and dung is deposited. They are there for the minerals.

In the evening, just before sunset, stand in your garden and watch. A real thrill is to watch a butterfly prepare to sleep. It will fly to a twig, hold its wings together so that it resembles a leaf, pump the color from them, and bring their antennae together so that the tips touch. Suddenly it is lost in the leaves, and can rest undetected.

I use my LCD window even though it is difficult in sunlight. I use autofocus exclusively. At my age, I rarely use my viewfinder, not because I can't see through it (it has the diopter feature), but because with the LCD I don't have to worry too much about composition. You want to fill as much as the screen as possible with the image you're trying to catch.

Again, something is better than nothing for identification purposes, and if I am having trouble, I use the zoom first. Then I switch to macro.

Moths - You might even come across very vivid, day-flying moths, which are great mimics. They can masquerade as wasps, or bees, but look closely at their antennae, despite their coloration. Feathery antennae indicate a moth. Here in August, goldenrod is covered with the metallic blue and red Polka-dotted wasp moth, spectacular and harmless; the wild ageratum draws Scarlet wasp moths with "windowpane" wings.

It's nice to record field notes on a small pad, but I usually forget. If you have trouble identifying an insect, there are endless places on the internet for help.

Never point your lens directly into the sun, and remember to keep the sun over your shoulder.

Keep your batteries charged, your shutter speed at 400 and always carry an additional memory stick. I can use up two sides of a 256 in an afternoon.

I hope this helps.

May Lattanzio
Bayou George, FL

Freelance writer/photographer
Author: "Waltz on the Wild Side - An Animal Lover's Journal"